Gerardo Lara-Cisneros


Modeling of MIcroalgae-based bioprocesses using Koopman operator Approach for monitoring and Dynamic Optimization


Alain Vande Wouwer

Research center

Systems, Estimation, Control and Optimisation Unit (SECO)

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Microalgae systems are promising green technology to produce highvalue bioproducts, but to its successful industrialization it is compulsory a solid methodology that provides robust and accurate mathematical models of the process. Data-driven modelling and control of complex systems are undergoing a revolution, driven by the rise of big data, advanced ML algorithms, and modern computational hardware. The mainstream in them is captured by neural networks with great results but also with the disadvantage of being nonlinear black-box representations requiring nonlinear control techniques which lack the stability. A data-driven Koopman operator approach (i.e., EDMD) to derive linear representations of the complex systems would open new horizons in designing advanced model-based monitoring and control schemes. The aim of the research proposal is to develop novel techniques based on the data-driven Koopman operator approach for dynamic modelling, estimation and control of microalgae process.


I was born in Mexico City, in 1979. I got a Chemical Engineering degree in 2003 and a Ph.D. in Engineering Science in 2009. When I finished the PhD, I worked as an assistant professor giving courses in Applied Mathematics at the time that I began with my research lines. I have published 19 scientific papers in international peer‐reviewed journals, most of them as the principal author, and an equivalent number of conference papers on the topics of nonlinear dynamics, real‐time optimization, and virtual sensors design. Currently, my research skills are focused on three main topics: (i) Hybrid modeling (combining AI with first principle models) for monitoring, supervising, and control of biochemical processes; (ii) Virtual sensor design for on-line estimation of the critical components in biotechnological processes; and, (iii) Advanced model-based control schemes (MPC, ESC, RLC) for real-time optimization of industrial processes.


1. Lara-Cisneros, G. (2024) Online monitoring of volatile fatty acids in biogas plants via data-driven software sensors. International Journal of Chemical Engineering Research Vol. 11 Issue 1, 1-9.

2. Lara-Cisneros, G.; Dochain, D. and Alvarez-Ramírez, J. (2020) On-line optimization of bio-methane production in continuous AD processes via model-based ESC approach. Water Science and Technology 80, 1725-1730.

3. Lara-Cisneros, G.; Dochain, D. and Alvarez-Ramírez, J. (2019) Model based extremum-seeking controller via modelling-error compensation approach. Journal of Process Control 80, 193-201.

4. Calderón-Soto, L.; Herrera-López, E.; Lara-Cisneros, G. and Femat, R. (2019) On unified stability for a class of chemostat model with generic growth rate functions: Maximum yield as control goal. Journal of Process Control 77, 61-75.

5. Lara-Cisneros, G. and Dochain, D. (2018) Software sensor for on-line estimation of the VFA’s concentration in anaerobic digestion processes via a high-order sliding mode observer. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 57 (42), 14173–14181

6. Lara-Cisneros, G.; Femat, R. and Dochain, D. (2017) Robust sliding mode based extremum-seeking controller for reaction systems via uncertainty estimation approach. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control. 27, 3218-3235.

7.Velázquez-Sánchez, H.I.; Lara-Cisneros, G.; Femat, R. and Aguilar-López, R. (2017) Dynamic Nonlinear Feedback Control Applied to Improve Butanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, DOI: 10.1515/ijcre-2017-0034.

8. Lara-Cisneros, G.; Aguilar-López, R; Dochain, D. and Femat, R. (2016) On-line estimation of VFA concentration in anaerobic digestion via methane outflow rate measurements. Computers & Chemical Engineering 94, 250-256.

9. Aguilar-López, R; Gómez-Acata, R.V.; Lara-Cisneros, G. and Femat, R. (2016) Nonlinear and robust control strategy based on chemotherapy to minimize the HIV concentration in blood plasma. Journal of Control Science and Engineering, ID 6284574, 6 pages.

10. Lara-Cisneros, G.; Álvarez-Ramírez, J. and Femat, R. (2016) Self-optimising control for a class of continuous bioreactor via variable-structure feedback. International Journal of Systems Science, 47(6), 1394-1406.

11. Aguilar-López, R.; López-Pérez, P.; Lara-Cisneros, G. and Femat, R., (2016) Controlling a class of chaotic quantum system under disturbances and noisy measurements. International Journal of Modern Physics C. 27 (3), 1650040-13p.

12. Lara-Cisneros, G.; Aguilar-López, R. and Femat, R. (2015) On the dynamic optimization of methane production in anaerobic digestion via extremum-seeking control approach. Computers & Chemical Engineering. (75), 49–59.

13. Cuevas, F.; López-Pérez, P.; Femat, R., Lara-Cisneros, G. and Aguilar-López, R. (2015) Regulation of a class of continuous bioreactor under switching kinetic behavior: Modeling and simulation approach. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (54),1326−1332.

14. Gómez-Acata, R.V.; Lara-Cisneros, G.; Femat, R. and Aguilar-López, R. (2015) On the dynamical behavior of a class of bioreactor with non-conventional yield coefficient form. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química. 14(1), 149-165.

15. Lara-Cisneros, G.; Femat, R. and Dochain, D. (2014) An extremum seeking approach via variable-structure control for fed-batch bioreactors with uncertain growth rate. Journal of Process Control. 24 (5), 663-671.

16. Lara-Cisneros, G.; Femat, R. and Pérez, E. (2012) On dynamical behavior of two-dimensional biological reactors. International Journal of Systems Science. 43 (3), 526–534.

17. Lara-Cisneros, G.; Loredo-Osti, A.; Femat, R. and Pérez, E. (2008) Pattern formation by two precipitated species during solvent evaporation, Physical Review E. 77(3), 036223-8p.

18. Lara, G.; Escobar, J.; Barrera, M. C.; Colín, J. A.; Murrieta, F. and De Los Reyes, J.A. (2005) Dibenzothiophene HDS over sulphided CoMo on high-silica USY zeolites, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 83 (4), 685-694.


Gerardo Lara-Cisneros



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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska Curie grant agreement No 101034383

Caroline Vliegen

C2W Project Manager

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